Robotics is a multidisciplinary sector of computer science and engineering consecrated to designing and constructing different types of robots. Robotics aims to design and manufacture machines that can help and assist humans. Robots are widely used to perform simple repetitive tasks and make human life easier, reduce labor cost, and give quality, safety, consistency. 


A robot is a machine capable of doing action automatically by a programmable machine that can assist humans or copy human actions. Robots are mostly task-performing machines, widely used in manufacturing, assembly, packing and packaging, mining, transport, surgery, weaponry, laboratory research, safety, and industrial goods.


Robot learning is the intersection of machine learning and robotics. It studies techniques and environment through learning algorithms and allowing a robot to learn basic skills and novel skills. Robot learning is related to adaptive control, reinforcement learning as well as developmental robotics although machine learning is the use of computer vision algorithms, which are employed in the principle learning of robotics. 


 The history of robotics has its origins in the ancient world. During the time of the industrial revolution, developed by human structural engineering. Ismail al-Jazari was considered as the father of robotics in modern-day engineering, by his services written in his book include the crank mechanism, connecting rod, programmable automaton, and humanoid. In the early 1950, George C. Devol created the first robot called the Unimate. The unimate was the first hydraulic manipulator arm industrial robot used by car making for metalworking and welding processes.

From 1967 to 1972 Waseda University of japan initiated a project called WABOT for the development of humanoid robots. The first full-scale humanoid intelligent robot WABOT-1 was created by Ichiro Kato in 1972. The WABOT-1 is able to communicate with the human in Japanese and measure distances and directions to the objects. In 1974, David Silver designed The Silver Arm known as the robot arm or robot hand. The SCARA (Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm) created 4-axis robotic arm in 1978. It is for the use of placing and picking parts at another location. Later on, the direct-drive arm was created in 1981 by Takeo Kanade. It was the first arm’s motors containing the robot itself by removing long transmissions. In 1984 Wabot-2 was announced and revealed with 10 fingers and two feet to give accompany to the person. Later on, Honda created a hexapodal humanoid robot called Genghis.

In the mids of the 90s robotics has reached the level of science and technology. John R. Adler created Cyberknife for the purpose of a radiosurgery system that integrated image-guided surgery with robotic positioning. Robo tuna and Honda p2and p3 the prototype model 2 and model 3 was revealed later on. Sony also introduced robotics dogs AIBO for the purpose of entertainment. 2001 was the year when the first robot Canadarm2 was launched into orbit and attached to the International Space Station. Robonaut 2 is the latest generation of space robots used as astronaut helpers is launched to the space station. On 25 October 2017, a robot was revealed named Sophia. It was the first robot ever to have a nationality and can live its life similar to humans.


Robotics solutions are being implemented in an ever-increasing number of industries and applications. These robots are high in processing power and can do any such critical jobs. Robotics has a large scale in AI (Artificial intelligence) following are the common types of robots


The robots are designed to perform a specific task in an open environment, which does not require human supervision. These robots work independently and are unique because they use sensors to perceive the environment. A vacuum cleaner called Roomba is a popular autonomous vehicle that uses sensors to roam freely throughout a home.


The word humanoid resembles a human-robot, which looks like a human. These robot supervisions are the same as the human as concern and do human activities such as running, jumping, mimic humans, etc. Hanson Sophia is the popular name in humanoid robots.


Cobots are called collaborative robots. These robots are collaborative, they work safely with humans because they are equipped with sensitive sensors which give the robot a feel. Cobots are used for a huge range of tasks from grinding and polishing to machine and food packaging etc. ABB YuMi is top in the line of cobots.


Robotic arms are also known as articulated robots, which emulate the function of the human arm. These robotic arms often consist of two to ten rotary joints. The supplementary joints allow moving at a greater degree of motion. It is used for all manner of industrial production, processing, and manufacturing roles like welding, material handling, machine tending, and packaging.


The interaction and information exchange with autonomous systems increase the efficiency of the Human-Robot Interaction. The enhanced capabilities that a person already has or replace capabilities that a person has lost are known as augmented robotics or augmented robots. Some examples of current augmenting robots are robotic prosthetic limbs or exoskeletons used to lift hefty weights.


Hybrid robots are automatic systems that use a combination of wheels (or tracks) and legs in different configurations to perform locomotion, which is model-driven or insect-driven robots, or artificially driven insects. These robots can be used for both model evaluations and biological experiments.

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